Monday, 22 April 2013

for notes ////////////// click here ////////////////(CSE, ISE, EEE,ECE) 

“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” 

                                                                         ― Nelson Mandela

  COMPUTER:

        A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem.

           Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit that can change the order of operations based on stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved.
           The first electronic digital computers were developed between 1940 and 1945 in the United Kingdom and United States. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).[1] In this era mechanical analog computers were used for military applications.
          Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the  early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.[2] Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". However, the embedded computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous.

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 Internet:

              The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support email.

             Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.
             The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s, commissioned by the United States government to build robust, fault-tolerant, and distributed computer networks. The funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of June 2012, more than 2.4 billion people—over a third of the world's human population—have used the services of the Internet.[1]
            The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.


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Virus: 

             A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea.[1]

             Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898,[2] about 5,000 viruses have been described in detail,[3] although there are millions of different types.[4] Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most abundant type of biological entity.[5][6] The study of viruses is known as virology, a sub-speciality of microbiology.
             Virus particles (known as virions) consist of two or three parts: i) the genetic material made from either DNA or RNA, long molecules that carry genetic information; ii) a protein coat that protects these genes; and in some cases iii) an envelope of lipids that surrounds the protein coat when they are outside a cell. The shapes of viruses range from simple helical and icosahedral forms to more complex structures. The average virus is about one one-hundredth the size of the average bacterium. Most viruses are too small to be seen directly with an optical microscope.
              The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids – pieces of DNA that can move between cells – while others may have evolved from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity.[7] Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection. However they lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life".[8]
              Viruses spread in many ways; viruses in plants are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on plant sap, such as aphids; viruses in animals can be carried by blood-sucking insects. These disease-bearing organisms are known as vectors. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal–oral route and are passed from person to person by contact, entering the body in food or water. HIV is one of several viruses transmitted through sexual contact and by exposure to infected blood. The range of host cells that a virus can infect is called its "host range". This can be narrow or, as when a virus is capable of infecting many species, broad.[9]
              Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. Immune responses can also be produced by vaccines, which confer an artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection. However, some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but several antiviral drugs have been developed.

 

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 Here is a collection of 25 Most Interesting Computer Facts featuring Funny Computer Facts,Internet facts,virus facts and more Computer Fun Facts.


1. 80% of all pictures on the internet are of naked women

2. Another name for a Microsoft Windows tutorial is ‘Crash Course’!
 
3. Bill Gates house was designed using a Macintosh computer.
 
4. In the year 2012 there will be approximately 17 billion devices connected to the Internet.
 
5. Domain names are being registered at a rate of more than one million names every month.
 
6. E-mail has been around longer than the World Wide Web.
 
7. For every ‘normal’ webpage, there are five porn pages.
 
8. In the 1980s, an IBM computer wasn’t considered 100% compatible unless it could run Microsoft Flight Simulator*.
 
9. MySpace reports over 110 million registered users. Were it a country, it would be the tenth largest, just behind Mexico.
 
10. One of every 8 married couples in the US last year met online.
 
11. The average 21 year old has spent 5,000 hours playing video games, has exchanged 250,000 e-mails, instant and text messages and has spent 10,000 hours on the mobile phone.
 
12. The average computer user blinks 7 times a minute, less than half the normal rate of 20.
 
13. The first banner advertising was used in 1994.
 
14. The first computer mouse was invented by Doug Engelbart in around 1964 and was made of wood.
 
15. The first domain name ever registered was Symbolics.com.

16. The world’s first computer, called the Z1, was invented by Konrad Zuse in 1936. His next invention, the Z2 was finished in 1939 and was the first fully functioning electro-mechanical computer.  

17. There are approximately 1,319,872,109 people on the Internet.  

18. There are approximately 1.06 billion instant messaging accounts worldwide.  

19. While it took the radio 38 years, and the television a short 13 years, it took the World Wide 
Web only 4 years to reach 50 million users.  

20.70% of virus writers work under contract for organized crime syndicates.  

21.A program named “Rother J” was the first computer virus to come into sight “in the wild” — that is, outside the single computer or lab where it was created.  

22.The worst MS-DOS virus ever, Michelangelo (1991) attacked the boot sector of your hard drive and any floppy drive inserted into the computer, which caused the virus to spread rapidly.  

23.A virus can not appear on your computer all by iself. You have to get it by sharing infected files or diskettes, or by downloading infected files from the Internet.  

24. Country with the highest percentage of net users is Sweden (75%).  

25. The first popular web browser was called Mosaic and was released in 1993.























30 Funny Computer Facts


After the popular post on Amazing Facts about Internet, here are some funny computer facts which you will find interesting! All those are compiled from web and books.


1. Amazon, originally a printed book seller company, now sells more e-books than printed books.
 

2. 220 million tons of old computers and other technological hardware are trashed in the United States each year.
 

3. The first two video games copyrighted in the U.S. were Asteroids and Lunar Lander in 1980.
 

4. Tim Berners-Lee coined the phrase “World Wide Web” in 1990.
 

5. U.S. President Bill Clinton’s inauguration in January 1997 was the first to be webcast.
 
6. Google uses an estimated 15 billion kWh of electricity per year, more than most countries. However, google generates a lot of their own power with their solar panels.  

7. Microsoft Windows tutorial’s another name is ‘Crash Course’. Now we now!  

8. Did you know hows was Bill Gates’ house was designed? Using a Macintosh computer.  

9. About 1.8 billion people connect to the Internet, only 450 million of them speak English.  

10. By the end of year 2012, there will be total approximately 17 billion devices (which includes computers, tablets and mobile) connected to the Internet.
 
11. Every month, domain names are being registered at a rate of more than one million!  

12. Did you know that Email was already around before the World Wide Web came?  

13. During 1980s, an IBM computer was not considered to be 100% compatible if it could not run 
Microsoft Flight Simulator.  

14. MySpace reports over 110 million registered users. Were it a country, it would be the tenth largest, just behind Mexico.  

15. Last year (2011), one out of every 8 married couples in the USA, met online.
 
16. The average 21 year old has spent 5,000 hours playing video games, has exchanged 250,000 e-mails, instant and text messages and has spent 10,000 hours on the mobile phone.  

17. The average computer user blinks 7 times a minute, less than half the normal rate of 20.  

18. The first banner advertise was introduced in the year 1994.  

19. Doug Engelbart had made the first computer mouse in 1964, and it was made out of wood.  

20. The first domain name ever registered was Symbolics.com.
 
21. The world’s first computer which was named the Z1, was invented by Konrad Zuse in 1936. His next invention, the Z2 was finished in 1939 and was the first fully functioning electro-mechanical computer.  

22. There are approximately 1,319,872,109 people using the Internet.  

23. There are approximately 1.06 billion instant messaging accounts worldwide.  

 24. While it took the radio 38 years, and the television a short 13 years, it took the World Wide Web only 4 years to reach 50 million users.  

25. 70% of virus writers work under contract for organized crime syndicates.
 
26. A program named “Rother J” was the first computer virus to come into sight “in the wild” — that is, outside the single computer or lab where it was created.
Two-thirds of American Internet users shop online.
 

27. Sweden has the hightest percentage of internet users, they are 75%.  

28. Mosaic was the first popular web browser which was released in 1993.
Every minute, 10 hours of videos are uploaded on Youtube.  

29. Up until the 14th of September, 1995, domain registration was free.  

30. 70% of virus writers actually work under a contract for an organization.

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